• To debug a MachO file using r2, run r2 with sudo. Otherwise you need to sign r2
  • LLDB debugger plugin r2lldb


OSX Code signing

Code Signing

After Mac OS X 10.6, binaries that need permissions to debug require to be signed and include a .plist describing them. 
In order to do this you can follow the following steps:

(Based on

    - Launch /Applications/Utilities/Keychain
    - In Keychain Access select the "login" keychain in the "Keychains" list in the upper left hand corner of the window.
    - Select the following menu item:
        Keychain Access->Certificate Assistant->Create a Certificate...
    - Set the following settings
        Name = org.radare.radare2
        Identity Type = Self Signed Root
        Certificate Type = Code Signing
    - Click Create
    - Click Continue
    - Click Done
    - Click on the "My Certificates"
    - Double click on your new org.radare.radare2 certificate
    - Turn down the "Trust" disclosure triangle, scroll to the "Code Signing" trust pulldown menu and select "Always
      Trust" and authenticate as needed using your username and password.
    - Drag the new "org.radare.radare2" code signing certificate (not the public or private keys of the same name) from
      the "login" keychain to the "System" keychain in the Keychains pane on the left hand side of the main Keychain
      Access window. This will move this certificate to the "System" keychain. You'll have to authorize a few more
      times, set it to be "Always trusted" when asked.
    - In the Keychain Access GUI, click and drag "org.radare.radare2" in the "System" keychain onto the desktop. 
      The drag will create a "~/Desktop/org.radare.radare2.cer" file used in the next step.
    - Switch to Terminal, and run the following:
        $ sudo security add-trust -d -r trustRoot -p basic -p codeSign -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain ~/Desktop/org.radare.radare2.cer
        $ rm -f ~/Desktop/org.radare.radare2.cer
    - Drag the "org.radare.radare2" certificate from the "System" keychain back into the "login" keychain
    - Quit Keychain Access
    - Reboot
    - Run sys/ (or follow the next steps if you want to install and sign radare2 manually)

As said before, the signing process can also be done manually following the next process. First, you will need to sign the radare2 binary:

    $ make -C binr/radare2 macossign

But this is not enough. As long as r2 code is splitted into several libraries, you should sign every single dependency (libr*).

    $ make -C binr/radare2 macos-sign-libs

Another alternative is to build a static version of r2 and just sign it.

    $ sys/
    $ make -C binr/radare2 macossign

You can verify that the binary is properly signed and verified by using the code signing utility:

    $ codesign -dv binr/radare2/radare2

Additionally, you can run the following command to add the non-priviledge user (username) to the Developer Tools group in macOS, 
avoiding the related Xcode prompts:

    $ sudo dscl . append /Groups/_developer GroupMembership <username>

After doing it you should be able to debug on macOS without root permissions!

    $ r2 -d mybin

Note: Apple-signed binaries cannot be debugged, since Apple's SIP (System Integrity Protection) prevents attaching
        to an Apple-signed binary. If you want to debug an Apple-signed binary, either remove its certificate
        (; WARNING: this cannot be reversed!) or disable SIP (`csrutil enable --without debug`).

Note: if you already have a valid certificate for code signing, you can specify its name by setting the env var CERTID.


To create a macOS .pkg just run the following command:

    $ sys/